Cold Fusion (LENR) or Deuterium Fission?
I present a simple hypothesis regarding the phenomena known as "cold fusion" or LENR; a hypothesis which conjoins several other current investigations in nuclear physics. It seems one persistent observation that results from cold fusion experiments is heat generation. While even this result is inconsistent, it is obviously the true observation of interest, energy! Many of the experiments involve deuterium or D2O and a crystalline material frequently palladium. The deuterium is manipulated in such a way that it becomes interstitially distributed within a crystalline structure. This experimental configuration is then somehow "stimulated" by known and certainly perhaps unknown energy sources. Rarely heat results.
Why the source of heat must be fusion seems to be solely conjecture, since it was believed to be the only source of energy sufficient to produce the resultant heat generated. Since the experiments are so inconsistent even the measure of the amount of heat generated comes into question.
Another heat source that never seems to be mentioned is deuterium fission. The Sudbury Nuetrino Observatory (SNO) has a excellent description of these energy generating reactions. These reactions are the result of "weak force" neutrino interactions with deuterium nuclei.
The SNO detector deuterium nuclei interactions are the "charged current reaction", "neutral current reaction", and "electron scattering". Each reaction is quite energetic and therefore "exothermic", but unfortunately for SNO these reactions are extremely unlikely. With a huge vat of deuterium oxide, there might be 30 reactions a day!
Casimir Effect and the velocity of light
There are ongoing efforts to demonstrate the impact of the Casimir effect on the velocity of light between two grounded metal plates. It has already been demonstrated that there is an attractive force between two metal plates with very close spacing, a micron or less. But it is believed the velocity of light traveling perpendicular to these plates is altered in a small amount. I am not sure there is a consensus yet on an increase or decrease of light velocity.
One thing to note, the Casimir effect is an alteration of space itself so all objects, including neutrinos, should be affected by this phenomena.
Note: Perhaps the Casimir effect is responsible for focusing electrons in superconducting materials?
The Solar Neutrino Flux
The solar neutrino flux is a huge "untapped" source of energy. And it is a good thing for us that it is untapped because neutrinos are blowing through us, and even the Earth, at a incredible rate. Neutrinos almost never interact with "matter"; protons, neutrons, and electrons.
But what if they did?
The "conjecture" in the hypothesis
I propose that it is conceivable that the crystal lattice involved in cold fusion experiments may facilitate, by virtue of the Casimir effect, the interaction of neutrinos and deuterium nuclei, thereby increasing the probability of weak force interactions and the resultant deuterium fissions. The crystalline structure facilitates these interactions in multiple ways.
1. The planes of the crystalline structure itself may act as the plates of a Casimir effect lens. Perhaps they may require a stressor to facilitate focusing.
2. The crystalline structure perfectly aligns deuterium nuclei with itself providing an extremely uniform spacing for the "targets".
3. The crystalline structure vastly increases the density of the deuterium nuclei.
4. Perhaps the alignment and proximity of deuterium nuclei could precipitate a fission cascade effect. (Now that would be heat!) LENR!
Perhaps the crystal's structure can alter the trajectory of neutrinos by virtue of the Casimir effect altering, ever so slightly, the nature of space between the atoms of the palladium crystal. Perhaps this effect could form a lens (many lenses) focusing the neutrino flux to a point(s) somewhere inside the crystalline structure. One side effect of this conjecture is that the "lens" itself should experience an ever so slight acceleration force due to the bending of the neutrino flux's trajectory.
If focusing were to occur, the generation of substantial fission reactions and energy might result. Due to the periodic nature of the crystalline structure, and arrayed deuterium atoms, perhaps a fission cascade could occur?
The missing link, a conjecture.
Perhaps the missing link in the scenarios above is the alignment, in some way, of the crystalline structure with the solar neutrino flux.
Has anybody experimented with aligning objects (other than telescopes) with the solar neutrino flux. Sudbury (SNO) has perfect alignment all the time, they are an omni directional detector!
For "cold fusion" experiments to date, this alignment certainly would be a happenstance. I would go so far as to say, the crystal itself may require a stress on its structure, or shaping it to facilitate a neutrino lens. The stress would provide a non-uniform spacing for each crystal lattice layer, providing a cascading bending of the solar neutrino flux based upon the modification of the velocity of light due to the Casimir effect, "refraction of neutrinos?".
An interesting paper discussing these possibilities:
The light velocity Casimir effect (Tom Ostoma, Mike Trushyk).
The Casimir effect neutrino lens, alternatives
Perhaps it is as simple as stacking of portions of roles of metallized polyester tape to form a neutrino focusing lens. The tape involved would have to have nanometer dimensions and perhaps be stressed to provide a cascading bend of a particle flux.
I have been playing around with all this.
But I lack the resources and the skills to even complete the most basic experiments properly. I could only afford a tiny bit of palladium wire! Deuterium is not cheap! One great thing about a solar neutrino flux tracker is that it can be in your basement! Remember neutrinos travel right through the earth without a collision (typically). I would need to be able to detect Cerenkov radiation (light), proton flux, etc to see any results from my experiments, which I have pretty much abandoned. Heat should be easy to detect, but no luck there.
My crude apparatus
Some photos are thumbnails:
This is my solar neutrino tracker (This guy must be nuts!). It has a clock drive, 1/4 rpm motor with worm gear reduction. It is pretty much like the clock drive on your telescope, only it "sees" neutrinos 24 hours a day! The rotating axis of the structure can be tilted to align with the Earth's axis, basically. There is another tilting "sample" holder whose elevation must be corrected daily, this could have a gear drive as well. There is a "lecture" bottle of deuterium gas strapped to it, to pressurize palladium wire samples or whatever, thereby hopefully charging the crystal lattice interstitially with deuterium. Believe it or not at the right time of day I peered through one of the tubes, through my basement windows, to check alignment with the sun (Sunny days only!). I do not know how the solar photon flux would align with the solar neutrino flux. I would suggest that the sample holder for the crystalline material rotate in various orientations over time to test all possible alignments of the crystalline structure to the solar neutrino flux.
A very nice
company to deal with!
In pursuit since the late 90's
I have been thinking about this since the 90's and decided to have some fun and build the crazy apparatus you saw above. I have also considered several forms of Casimir effect neutrino lenses since the 90's. Perhaps the most promising would be a large cube of palladium? Simply because the palladium may well facilitate the alignment of the solar neutrino flux with a heat producing target, the deuterium nucleus.
Pon's and Fleischmann's charging current may not only have helped charge the palladium interstitially with deuterium, but may also have stressed the crystalline structure of palladium, in such a way as to form a Casimir effect neutrino lens, focusing arrays of neutrino's on deuterium nuclei, facilitating deuterium fission and heat generation, all, only when by happenstance, was the palladium crystal lattice structure perfectly aligned with the solar neutrino flux in some yet to be discovered orientation. Perhaps something that might only happen once a year, or more likely once a day! Hence the crude apparatus above.
Other strange notes
Is it possible the solar neutrino flux will always destabilize attempts at high temperature nuclear fusion on Earth?
Enough craziness for today.
Bob Matheson (Robert Matheson) 12/04/2008
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